Spandrel glass can be monolithic, laminated, or insulating glass. The spandrel glass can be made opaque through the use of opacifiers (film/paint or ceramic frit) applied on an unexposed surface or through "shadow box" construction, i.e., providing an enclosed space behind clear spandrel glass. Shadow box construction creates a perception of depth behind the spandrel glass that is sometimes desired.
Metal corten steel panels can take various forms including aluminum plate, stainless steel or other non-corrosive metal, thin composite panels consisting of two thin aluminum sheets sandwiching a thin plastic interlayer, or panels consisting of metal sheets bonded to rigid insulation, with or without an inner metal sheet to create a sandwich panel.
Thin stone panels are most commonly granite. White marble should not be used due to its susceptibility to deformation due to hysteresis (thin stone is not covered in this chapter).
The curtain wall often comprises one part of a building's wall system. Careful integration with adjacent elements such as other wall claddings, roofs, and base of wall details is required for a successful installation.