316L/4435 is a Supra 316L/4432 alternative with higher chromium and nickel content for enhanced corrosion resistance and formability. 316L/4435 is an austenitic stainless steel that belongs to the standard CrNiMo stainless steel family. 316L/4435 has low carbon content for improved resistance against intergranular corrosion after welding, increased nickel content for improved formability, and increased molybdenum content for slightly improved corrosion resistance.
Due to their molybdenum content, the austenitic CrNiMo standard grades can be used in applications with increased demand for corrosion resistance. Their well-balanced material properties make them suitable for the fabrication of many products.
316L/4435 is available in many product forms and dimensions. It can be supplied with a wide range of functional and aesthetic surface finishes.
Pulp and synthetic fiber plants
Flanges and valves
Product forms, available sizes and finishes
Black hot band
Cold rolled coil
2B, 2BB, 2D, 2E, 2G, 2H, 2J, 2R
Cold rolled sheet
2B, 2BB, 2D, 2E, 2G, 2H, 2J, 2R
Hot rolled coil, pickled
1C, 1D, 1U
Cold drawn bar hex
Cold drawn bar round
Cold drawn bar square
Forged billet round
Forged billet square
Hot rolled / Black bar round
Peeled / turned bar round
Rolled billet round
Rolled billet square
Wire rod (Rod coil) hex
Wire rod (Rod coil) round
Wire rod (Rod coil) square
The typical chemical composition for this grade is given in the table below, together with composition limits given for the product according to different standards. The required standard will be fully met as specified on the order.
The chemical composition is given as % by mass.
ASME II A SA-240
The mechanical properties of the available products in the soft annealed condition at room temperature are given in the table below. Moderate strengths can be reached at elevated temperatures (~550 °C/1022 °F). Temperatures for excessive scaling are close to 850 °C/1562 °F.
This grade, along with other austenitic corrosion-resistant steels, exhibits very high ductility and high elongation to fracture. It is not susceptible to brittle fracture in the solution annealed condition.
Product type: Cold rolled coil and sheet
Typical (thickness 1 mm)
Product type: Hot rolled coil and sheet
Typical (thickness 4 mm)
Product type: Hot rolled quarto plate
Typical (thickness 15 mm)
Product type: Wire rod
|Density||Modulus of elasticity||Thermal exp. at 100 °C||Thermal conductivity|
316/4436 has excellent corrosion resistance in solutions of many halogen-free organic and inorganic compounds over a wide temperature and concentration range. It can withstand many organic and diluted mineral acids depending on the temperature and concentration of the solution. 316/4436 may suffer from uniform corrosion in strong mineral acids and hot strong alkaline solutions.
In aqueous solutions containing halogenides, e.g. chlorides or bromides, pitting and crevice corrosion may occur depending on halogenide concentration, temperature, pH-value, concentration of oxidizing compounds, or crevice geometry, if applicable.
Due to its increased molybdenum content, the resistance of 316/4436 against pitting and crevice corrosion is slightly increased compared to the basic austenitic CrNiMo grades 4401 and 4404. The presence of corrosion-inhibiting or accelerating compounds like e.g. transition metal ions or organic compounds may influence the corrosion behavior of 316/4436.
316/4436 is prone to chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking at temperatures over about 50 °C depending on the applied stress and the chloride concentration in the environment. Prior cold deformation of the structure under load increases the risk of stress corrosion cracking.
316/4436 can be used for indoor and outdoor applications in rural, urban, and moderately corrosive industrial environments. In environments where chloride contamination may be high, for instance in coastal areas, pitting and staining is possible. The best material performance is reached usually with the help of adequate design, correct post-weld treatment, and regular cleaning during use (if applicable).
316L/4435 can be readily formed and fabricated using a full range of cold forming operations. It can be used in heading, drawing, and bending. Any cold forming operations will increase the strength and hardness of the material.
Hot forming can be carried out in the 850 °C–1150 °C range. For maximum corrosion resistance, forgings should be annealed at 1070 °C and rapidly cooled in air or water after hot forming operations.
Better machinability performance is achieved using Prodec versions, which have been modified for improved machinability. Prodec is available as hot rolled plate and bar in 4401, 4404, 4436 and 4432.