EN 1.4435, ASTM TYPE 316L Stainless Steel

EN 1.4435, ASTM TYPE 316L Stainless Steel

EN 1.4435, ASTM TYPE 316L Stainless Steel General Characteristics 316L/4435 is a Supra 316L/4432 alternative with higher chromium and nickel content for enhanced corrosion resistance and formability. 316L/4435 is an austenitic stainless steel that belongs to the standard CrNiMo stainless steel...
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EN 1.4435, ASTM TYPE 316L Stainless Steel

General Characteristics

316L/4435 is a Supra 316L/4432 alternative with higher chromium and nickel content for enhanced corrosion resistance and formability. 316L/4435 is an austenitic stainless steel that belongs to the standard CrNiMo stainless steel family. 316L/4435 has low carbon content for improved resistance against intergranular corrosion after welding, increased nickel content for improved formability, and increased molybdenum content for slightly improved corrosion resistance.


Due to their molybdenum content, the austenitic CrNiMo standard grades can be used in applications with increased demand for corrosion resistance. Their well-balanced material properties make them suitable for the fabrication of many products.


316L/4435 is available in many product forms and dimensions. It can be supplied with a wide range of functional and aesthetic surface finishes.


Typical Applications

Urea plants

Pulp and synthetic fiber plants

Flanges and valves


Product forms, available sizes and finishes

Flat

Product typeFinishesThicknessWidth

Black hot band

1U

2,50-12,70

1000-1600

Cold rolled coil

2B, 2BB, 2D, 2E, 2G, 2H, 2J, 2R

0,05-6,00

3-1540

Cold rolled sheet

2B, 2BB, 2D, 2E, 2G, 2H, 2J, 2R

0,40-6,00

350-1500

Hot rolled coil, pickled

1C, 1D, 1U

3,00-8,00

50-1530

Precision strip

2H, 2R

0,05-1,50

3-649

Quarto plate

1D

5,00-130,00

400-3200


Long

Product typeThicknessWidth
Bloom

395,00-405,00

295-305

Cast slab

165,00-305,00

1000-1580

Cold drawn bar hex

8,00-25,40

8-25

Cold drawn bar round

6,00-25,40

6-25

Cold drawn bar square

8,00-22,00

8-22

Forged billet round

170,00-230,00

170-230

Forged billet square

170,00-230,00

170-230

Hot rolled / Black bar round

75,00-200,00

75-200

Peeled / turned bar round

70,00-170,00

70-170

Rolled billet round

90,00-170,00

90-170

Rolled billet square

75,00-170,00

75-170

Wire rod (Rod coil) hex

9,00-27,00

9-27

Wire rod (Rod coil) round

5,00-27,00

5-27

Wire rod (Rod coil) square

9,00-24,00

9-24


Chemical Composition

The typical chemical composition for this grade is given in the table below, together with composition limits given for the product according to different standards. The required standard will be fully met as specified on the order.


The chemical composition is given as % by mass.


CMnCrNiMoN
Typical

0.02


17.3

12.6

2.6


ASME II A SA-240

≤0.030

≤2.00

16.00-18.00

10.00-14.00

2.00-3.00

≤0.10

EN 10028-7

≤0.030

≤2.00

17.0-19.0

12.5-15.0

2.50-3.00

≤0.10

EN 10088-2

≤0.030

≤2.0

17.0-19.0

12.5-15.0

2.5-3.0

≤0.10

EN 10088-4

≤0.030

≤2.0

17.0-19.0

12.5-15.0

2.5-3.0

≤0.10


Mechanical Properties

The mechanical properties of the available products in the soft annealed condition at room temperature are given in the table below. Moderate strengths can be reached at elevated temperatures (~550 °C/1022 °F). Temperatures for excessive scaling are close to 850 °C/1562 °F.


This grade, along with other austenitic corrosion-resistant steels, exhibits very high ductility and high elongation to fracture. It is not susceptible to brittle fracture in the solution annealed condition.


Standard

Rp0.2

Rp1.0

RmElongation

MPa

MPa

MPa

%

Product type: Cold rolled coil and sheet

Typical (thickness 1 mm)

290

320

610


EN 10028-7

≥ 240

≥ 270

550-700

≥ 40

EN 10088-2

≥ 240

≥ 270

550-700

≥ 40

Product type: Hot rolled coil and sheet





Typical (thickness 4 mm)





EN 10088-2

≥ 220

≥ 260

550-700

≥ 40

Product type: Hot rolled quarto plate

Typical (thickness 15 mm)

260

300

570

55

EN 10028-7

≥ 220

≥ 260

520-670

≥ 45

EN 10088-2

≥ 220

≥ 260

520-670

≥ 45

EN 10088-4

≥ 220

≥ 260

520-670

≥ 45

Product type: Wire rod

Typical

270

310

570

55


Physical Properties

DensityModulus of elasticityThermal exp. at 100 °CThermal conductivity

kg/dm3

GPa

10-6/°C

W/m°C

8.0

200

16,0

15


Corrosion Resistance

316/4436 has excellent corrosion resistance in solutions of many halogen-free organic and inorganic compounds over a wide temperature and concentration range. It can withstand many organic and diluted mineral acids depending on the temperature and concentration of the solution. 316/4436 may suffer from uniform corrosion in strong mineral acids and hot strong alkaline solutions.


In aqueous solutions containing halogenides, e.g. chlorides or bromides, pitting and crevice corrosion may occur depending on halogenide concentration, temperature, pH-value, concentration of oxidizing compounds, or crevice geometry, if applicable. 


Due to its increased molybdenum content, the resistance of 316/4436 against pitting and crevice corrosion is slightly increased compared to the basic austenitic CrNiMo grades 4401 and 4404. The presence of corrosion-inhibiting or accelerating compounds like e.g. transition metal ions or organic compounds may influence the corrosion behavior of 316/4436.


316/4436 is prone to chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking at temperatures over about 50 °C depending on the applied stress and the chloride concentration in the environment. Prior cold deformation of the structure under load increases the risk of stress corrosion cracking.


316/4436 can be used for indoor and outdoor applications in rural, urban, and moderately corrosive industrial environments. In environments where chloride contamination may be high, for instance in coastal areas, pitting and staining is possible. The best material performance is reached usually with the help of adequate design, correct post-weld treatment, and regular cleaning during use (if applicable).


Cold Forming

316L/4435 can be readily formed and fabricated using a full range of cold forming operations. It can be used in heading, drawing, and bending. Any cold forming operations will increase the strength and hardness of the material.


Hot Forming

Hot forming can be carried out in the 850 °C–1150 °C range. For maximum corrosion resistance, forgings should be annealed at 1070 °C and rapidly cooled in air or water after hot forming operations.


Machining

Better machinability performance is achieved using Prodec versions, which have been modified for improved machinability. Prodec is available as hot rolled plate and bar in 4401, 4404, 4436 and 4432.


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