Carbon 0.15 max
Manganese 1.00 max
Phosphorus 0.040 max
Sulfur 0.030 max
Silicon 1.00 max
Chromium 11.5 – 13.5
410 is a martensitic stainless alloy that is used for highly stressed requirements. This alloy can be melted as AOD, AOD + VAR, or AOD + ESR melt type. It possessed good corrosion resistance and can be heat treated to multiple different strength levels. This is a very common grade used in many industries such as aerospace, power generation, and general industry.
This is the basic martensitic stainless steel. It is used for highly stressed parts where a degree of corrosion resistance, strength and ductility are required. The alloy can be used up to 1200ºF (650ºC) where resistance to scaling is required, and readily hot worked by forging and upsetting.
This alloy may be used for steam turbine buckets, blades, bucket covers, gas turbine compressor blades, nuclear reactor control rod mechanisms, forged valves, fasteners, shafting, pump parts and machine parts
This alloy may be readily forged, headed or upset. It requires more blows or a heavier hammer than does mild steel. It should be heated uniformly to 2000/2200ºF (1095/1205ºC), depending upon the degree of deformation, then forged and air cooled. Large forgings should be furnace cooled or cooled in dry lime. This grade should not be forged below 1650ºF (900ºC).
Heat uniformly to 1200/1400ºF (650/760ºC) and air cool, to give approximately 187 BHN. For better machinabilty reduce annealing temperature to give higher hardness. For maximum softness heat to 1500/1650ºF (815/900ºC) and slow furnace cool to give approximately 155 BHN.
Heat to 1750/1850ºF (955/1010ºC), soak and quench in oil or air cool.
Temper at temperatures appropriate to produce desired mechanical properties. Soak for at least one hour, longer for larger sections, and air cool.
If this alloy is tempered in the range 750/1050ºF (400/565ºC) there will be a decrease in impact strength and in corrosion resistance – depending upon the media. If tempering in this range is necessary to obtain the desired strength and ductility values, it may be that in many cases the reduced impact strength is not a problem and that the corrosion resistance is only slightly reduced.
In its softest condition, type 410 stainless is tough and chips build up on tools. Better finishes are obtained in the cold drawn or heat-treated condition. If higher mechanical properties are required, the material can be machined up to Rc 35.
Type 410 may be satisfactorily welded. Parts should be preheated at 350/400ºF (180/205ºC) to prevent cracking, particularly in heavy sections. Since the alloy is air hardening, parts should be annealed immediately after welding.